Theory and Methodology of Environment (13OZS42O3)
- Level of study undergraduate studies
Ph.D. Miroljub Milinčić
- Subject status: obligatory
- ECTS: 5
- Semester: VIII
- Number of classes: 3+3
The ecological crisis and its possible consequences support the need for a comprehensive theoretical and methodological examination of the environmental problems. Based on relevant facts, prove that in contemporary conditions environmental problems belong to a group of central fundamental and applied geospatial research. Particularly, in the conditions of increasingly intense antagonism and contradiction of its two basic subsystems - nature and society. One of the most important accomplished goals is the proof that the environment is not a static system and that its structure and functionality are not an aggregate of randomly given geospatial phenomena, objects and processes, but a complex systemic environment of the real world of matter. Also, such an examination of the environment implies necessarily overcoming the geospatial concept as a dual system.
Ability to understand and apply theoretical and methodological knowledge in the field of environment.
1. Introduction to students with: teaching program Theory and methodology of the environment and its significance in the realization of the curriculum of the study group Geospatial basics of the environment; dynamics, method of work and realization of the curriculum; instructions for selection, conception and realization of the topics of essays.
2. Development of understanding and knowing of the environment: environment - concept and definitions; anthropocentric and biocentric approach to defining the notion of the environment; subject of study and research tasks; relation to related sciences; historical development looks at the relationship between man and the environment; civilized concepts of the environment; industrial revolution and demographic growth - a time of intense environmental damage.
3. Theoretical considerations and understandings of the relation between man and the environment: civil theory and approach to the problem of the environment; naturalistic approaches (biology, genetic determinism, holism, geographical determinism).
4. Sociological approaches to understanding the relationship between man and the environment: anthropology, malthusianism, neo-malthusianism, economic determinism; technological determinism; ecological determinism.
5. Evolution and coevolution of geospace: geocomponent and geospheric level; paradigms of geospatial research (geocomponent, geocomplex, geostructural, ecological).
6. Geospatial structure: subjectively (sensory observable); objectively (defined by measurements), physical space (phenomena, objects, processes) as concrete, objective and realistic; the relation of abstract-imaginary and real space; isotropy and anisotropy of space; anisotropy and uniqueness of geospatial; extension and coexistence of geospace; environment as a real spatial system.
7. The contradictory of nature and society development causes and consequences of environmental problems: space as a limited resource and condition; condition and capacity of individual environmental media (atmosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, biosphere); growing population and declining resource availability; changes in the environment (deforestation, desertification, acidification ...) and ecological capacity of space; theory and practice of sustainable development; economics and ecology; critique of growth ideology (growth limits, zero growth, sustainable development).
8. Human society and the environment: the ecological capacity of the Planet and the perspectives of demographic and economic-geographical growth and development; ecological and social polarization of space; ecological footprint (population growth and living standards); the coincidence of the contemporary economic and ecological crisis; the change of the paradigm of existence - people used to live out of nature but now they have to live with it; a geospace as a super tank and a super landfill.
9. The problem of the causes and consequences of the ecological crisis and its resolution: the causes and consequences of the ecological crisis; possible solutions to the ecological crisis (technocratic, economic-ecological and eco humanistic orientations).
10. System approach and systemicity environment: concept of system and systemicity environment; topological environmental systems - ecosystems; landscape geosystems; regional geosystems - regions.
11. Humanistic and spiritual aspect of environmental science: the gnoseological aspect of environmental science: process, structure and development of environmental knowledge; contemporary science and the environment; ecological ethics; ecological aesthetics; ideology and environment; religion and the environment.
12. Theoretical methods of environmental research: characteristics and specificities of scientific methods in environmental research; ontology and epistemology of environmental science; paradigm of research; reductionism and holism; methods of analysis and synthesis, statistical method, classification method, modeling method, spatial dynamic dispersion models.
13. Specific methods of environmental research: direct environmental research (geo-ecological method, method of observation, geophysical methods, bioindicators); remote detection.
14. Environmental evaluation methods: Regionalization of geospatial resources as a prerequisite for evaluation; methods of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the environment; methods of balance; method of evaluation, partial, complete and complex evaluation methods; econometric methods; historical-ecological method; cartographic method of environmental research.
15. Recapitulation of contents of thematic units of the subject Theory and methodology of the environment.
Monitoring and interpreting current problems in the theory and methodology of the environment at different levels. Analysis of the institutional organization of protection and improvement of the environment. Getting acquainted with databases of relevance for understanding the situation and monitoring changes in the environment. Introduction and interpretation of global environmental issues. One trip: half-day - Ada Huja, Topčider, Obedska bara (alternatively).